Home About the Journal Latest Work Current Issue Archive Special Issues Editorial Board
<< Previous Next >>

2021, 3(5): 369-382

Published Date:2021-10-20 DOI: 10.1016/j.vrih.2021.09.004

Analysis of teenagers' preferences and concerns regarding HMDs in education


Virtual reality (VR) has become a powerful and promising tool for education, and numerous studies have investigated the application and effectiveness of VR education. However, few studies have focused on the expectations and concerns of teenagers regarding head-mounted displays (HMDs), which are used for this purpose.
In this paper, we aim to explore the current problems and necessary advancements required in VR education based on a survey of 163 senior high school students who experience VR educational content for 1h. The usability and comfort of the HMD system, the physical and psychological effects on the students, and their preferences and concerns are investigated.
The results show that HMDs increase students' interest, concentration, and enthusiasm for learning. However, isolated virtual environments make students feel nervous and afraid. The immersive environment also makes them worry about VR addiction and confusing the physical world with the virtual one.
VR has great potential in the field of education, but the issue of safety needs to be considered in the future.


Virtual reality ; Education ; Preferences and concerns

Cite this article

Jie GUO, Dongdong WENG, Yue LIU, Qiyong CHEN, Yongtian WANG. Analysis of teenagers' preferences and concerns regarding HMDs in education. Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware, 2021, 3(5): 369-382 DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2021.09.004


1. Lin C J, Woldegiorgis B H. Interaction and visual performance in stereoscopic displays: a review. Journal of the Society for Information Display, 2015, 23(7): 319–332 DOI:10.1002/jsid.378

2. Malbos E, Rapee R M, Kavakli M. Behavioral presence test in threatening virtual environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2012, 21(3): 268–280 DOI:10.1162/pres_a_00112

3. Ehrsson H H. Virtual reality and telepresence-Response. 2007, 318(5854):1242

4. Wiederhold B K, Wiederhold M D. Lessons learned from 600 virtual reality Sessions. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2000, 3(3): 393–400 DOI:10.1089/10949310050078841

5. Hoffman H G, Richards T, Coda B, Richards A, Sharar S R. The illusion of presence in immersive virtual reality during an fMRI brain scan. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2003, 6(2): 127–131 DOI:10.1089/109493103321640310

6. Tichon J. Training cognitive skills in virtual reality: measuring performance. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2007, 10(2): 286–289 DOI:10.1089/cpb.2006.9957

7. Viegas C, Pavani A, Lima N, Marques A, Pozzo I, Dobboletta E, Atencia V, Barreto D, Calliari F, Fidalgo A, Lima D, Temporão G, Alves G. Impact of a remote lab on teaching practices and student learning. Computers & Education 2018, 126: 201–216

8. Dalgarno B, Lee M J W. What are the learning affordances of 3D virtual environments? British Journal of Educational Technology, 2010, 41(1): 10–32 DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01038.x

9. Scott E, Soria A, Campo M. Adaptive 3D virtual learning environments: a review of the literature. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 2017, 10(3): 262–276 DOI:10.1109/tlt.2016.2609910

10. Mikropoulos T A, Natsis A. Educational virtual environments: a ten-year review of empirical research (1999–2009). Computers & Education, 2011, 56(3): 769–780 DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.10.020

11. Helsel S. Virtual reality and education. 1992, 38–42

12. Ai-Lim Lee E, Wong K W, Fung C C. How does desktop virtual reality enhance learning outcomes? A structural equation modeling approach. Computers & Education, 2010, 55(4): 1424–1442 DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.06.006

13. Ibanez M, Delgado Kloos C, Leony D, Garcia Rueda J J, Maroto D. Learning a foreign language in a mixed-reality environment. IEEE Internet Computing, 2011, 15(6): 44–47 DOI:10.1109/mic.2011.78

14. Merchant Z, Goetz E T, Keeney-Kennicutt W, Kwok O M, Cifuentes L, Davis T J. The learner characteristics, features of desktop 3D virtual reality environments, and college chemistry instruction: a structural equation modeling analysis. Computers & Education, 2012, 59(2): 551–568 DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.02.004

15. Hwang W Y, Hu S S. Analysis of peer learning behaviors using multiple representations in virtual reality and their impacts on geometry problem solving. Computers & Education, 2013, 62: 308–319 DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.005

16. di Serio Á, Ibáñez M B, Kloos C D. Impact of an augmented reality system on students' motivation for a visual art course. Computers & Education, 2013, 68: 586–596 DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.03.002

17. Lee E A L, Wong K W. Learning with desktop virtual reality: Low spatial ability learners are more positively affected. Computers & Education, 2014, 79: 49–58 DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.07.010

18. Chen H, Liu M. Development and design of Virtual reality technology in physical training course. Agro Food Industry Hi Tech, 2017, 28(1): 3134–3137

19. Akbulut A, Catal C, Yıldız B. On the effectiveness of virtual reality in the education of software engineering. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 2018, 26(4): 918–927 DOI:10.1002/cae.21935

20. Leder J, Horlitz T, Puschmann P, Wittstock V, Schütz A. Comparing immersive virtual reality and powerpoint as methods for delivering safety training: Impacts on risk perception, learning, and decision making. Safety Science, 2019, 111: 271–286 DOI:10.1016/j.ssci.2018.07.021

21. Park J, MacRae H, Musselman L J, Rossos P, Hamstra S J, Wolman S, Reznick R K. Randomized controlled trial of virtual reality simulator training: transfer to live patients. The American Journal of Surgery, 2007, 194(2): 205–211 DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2006.11.032

22. Jensen L, Konradsen F. A review of the use of virtual reality head-mounted displays in education and training. Education and Information Technologies, 2018, 23(4): 1515–1529 DOI:10.1007/s10639-017-9676-0

23. Kartiko I, Kavakli M, Cheng K. Learning science in a virtual reality application: The impacts of animated-virtual actors’ visual complexity. Computers & Education, 2010, 55(2): 881–891 DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.03.019

24. Rau P-L P, Zheng J, Guo Z, Li J. Speed reading on virtual reality and augmented reality. Computers & Education 2018, 125: 240–245

25. Marín-Morales J, Higuera-Trujillo J L, Greco A, Guixeres J, Llinares C, Scilingo E P, Alcañiz M, Valenza G. Affective computing in virtual reality: emotion recognition from brain and heartbeat dynamics using wearable sensors. Scientific Reports, 2018, 8: 13657 DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-32063-4

26. Rebenitsch L, Owen C. Review on cybersickness in applications and visual displays. Virtual Reality, 2016, 20(2): 101–125 DOI:10.1007/s10055-016-0285-9

27. Weech S, Kenny S, Barnett-Cowan M. Presence and cybersickness in virtual reality are negatively related: a review. Frontiers in Psychology, 2019, 10: 158 DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00158

28. Koulieris G A, Bui B, Banks M S, Drettakis G. Accommodation and comfort in head-mounted displays. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 2017, 36(4): 1–11 DOI:10.1145/3072959.3073622

29. Guo J, Weng D, Duh H B-L, Liu Y, Wang Y. Effects of using HMDs on visual fatigue in virtual environments. In: 2017 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR). 2017, 249–250 DOI:10.1109/VR.2017.7892270

30. Guo J, Weng D D, Zhang Z L, Liu Y, Duh H B L, Wang Y T. Subjective and objective evaluation of visual fatigue caused by continuous and discontinuous use of HMDs. Journal of the Society for Information Display, 2019, 27(2): 108–119 DOI:10.1002/jsid.750

31. Annerstedt M, Jönsson P, Wallergård M, Johansson G, Karlson B, Grahn P, Hansen Å M, Währborg P. Inducing physiological stress recovery with sounds of nature in a virtual reality forest: Results from a pilot study. Physiology & Behavior, 2013, 118: 240–250 DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.05.023

32. Tarr B, Slater M, Cohen E. Synchrony and social connection in immersive Virtual Reality. Scientific Reports, 2018, 8: 3693 DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-21765-4

33. Kim K, Rosenthal M Z, Zielinski D J, Brady R. Effects of virtual environment platforms on emotional responses. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 2014, 113(3): 882–893 DOI:10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.12.024

34. Usoh M, Catena E, Arman S, Slater M. Using presence questionnaires in reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2000, 9(5): 497–503 DOI:10.1162/105474600566989

35. Brooke J. SUS - A quick and dirty usability scale. 1996, 189

36. Kennedy R S, Lane N E, Berbaum K S, Lilienthal M G. Simulator sickness questionnaire: an enhanced method for quantifying simulator sickness. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 1993, 3(3): 203–220 DOI:10.1207/s15327108ijap0303_3

37. Watson D, Clark L A, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1988, 54(6): 1063–1070 DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063


1. Jingcheng QIAN, Yancong MA, Zhigeng PAN, Xubo YANG, Effects of Virtual-real fusion on immersion, presence, and learning performance in laboratory education Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(6): 569-584

2. Hongxin ZHANG, Jin ZHANG, Xue YIN, Kan ZHOU, Zhigeng PAN, Abdennour EI RHALIBI, Cloud-to-end rendering and storage management for virtual reality in experimental education Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(4): 368-380

3. Na ZHANG, Liwen TAN, Fengying LI, Bing HAN, Yifa XU, Development and application of digital assistive teaching system for anatomy Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2021, 3(4): 315-335

4. Zhuoluo MA, Yue LIU, Lu ZHAO, Effect of haptic feedback on a virtual lab about friction Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(4): 428-434

5. Mohib ULLAH, Sareer Ul AMIN, Muhammad MUNSIF, Muhammad Mudassar YAMIN, Utkurbek SAFAEV, Habib KHAN, Salman KHAN, Habib ULLAH, Serious games in science education: a systematic literature review Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2022, 4(3): 189-209

6. Yang LI, Dong WU, Jin HUANG, Feng TIAN, Hong'an WANG, Guozhong DAI, Influence of multi-modality on moving target selection in virtual reality Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(3): 303-315

7. Yang LI, Jin HUANG, Feng TIAN, Hong-An WANG, Guo-Zhong DAI, Gesture interaction in virtual reality Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(1): 84-112

8. Athirah SYAMIMI, Yiwei GONG, Ryan LIEW, VR industrial applicationsA singapore perspective Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(5): 409-420

9. Yijun LI, Miao WANG, Derong JIN, Frank STEINICKE, Qinping ZHAO, Effects of virtual environment and self-representations on perception and physical performance in redirected jumping Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2021, 3(6): 451-469

10. Susu HUANG, Daqing QI, Jiabin YUAN, Huawei TU, Review of studies on target acquisition in virtual reality based on the crossing paradigm Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(3): 251-264

11. Yukang YAN, Xin YI, Chun YU, Yuanchun SHI, Gesture-based target acquisition in virtual and augmented reality Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(3): 276-289

12. Yuan GAO, Le XIE, A review on the application of augmented reality in craniomaxillofacial surgery Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(1): 113-120

13. Yuan CHANG, Guo-Ping WANG, A review on image-based rendering Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(1): 39-54

14. Shiguang QIU, Shuntao LIU, Deshuai KONG, Qichang HE, Three-dimensional virtual-real mapping of aircraft autom-atic spray operation and online simulation monitoring Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(6): 611-621

15. Xu PENG, Zhenyu GAO, Yitong DING, Dongfeng ZHAO, Xiaoyu CHI, Study of ghost image suppression in polarized catadioptric virtual reality optical systems Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(1): 70-78

16. Zhiming HU, Sheng LI, Meng GAI, Temporal continuity of visual attention for future gaze prediction in immersive virtual reality Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(2): 142-152

17. Lihui HUANG, Siti Faatihah Binte Mohd TAIB, Ryan Aung BA, Zhe An GOH, Mengshan XU, Virtual reality research and development in NTU Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(5): 394-408

18. Stéphanie PHILIPPE, Alexis D. SOUCHET, Petros LAMERAS, Panagiotis PETRIDIS, Julien CAPORAL, Gildas COLDEBOEUF, Hadrien DUZAN, Multimodal teaching, learning and training in virtual reality: a review and case study Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(5): 421-442

19. Jia Ming LEE, Xinxing XIA, Clemen OW, Felix CHUA, Yunqing GUAN, VEGO: A novel design towards customizable and adjustable head-mounted display for VR Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(5): 443-453

20. Hengwei XU, Siru LI, Wenpeng SONG, Jiajun SUN, Xinli WU, Xiaoqi WANG, Wenzhen YANG, Zhigeng PAN, Abdennour EI RHALIBI, Thermal perception method of virtual chemistry experiments Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(4): 305-315

21. TJ MATTHEWS, Feng TIAN, Tom DOLBY, Interaction design for paediatric emergency VR training Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(4): 330-344

22. Xiang ZHOU, Liyu TANG, Ding LIN, Wei HAN, Virtual & augmented reality for biological microscope in experiment education Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(4): 316-329

23. Haoyu WANG, Jianhuang WU, A virtual reality based surgical skills training simulator for catheter ablation with real-time and robust interaction Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2021, 3(4): 302-314

24. Daniel VANKOV, David JANKOVSZKY, Effects of using headset-delivered virtual reality in road safety research: A systematic review of empirical studies Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2021, 3(5): 351-368

25. Xiaolong LIU, Lili WANG, Redirected jumping in virtual scenes with alleys Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2021, 3(6): 470-483

26. Liming WANG, Xianwei CHEN, Tianyang DONG, Jing FAN, Virtual climbing: An immersive upslope walking system using passive haptics Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2021, 3(6): 435-450

27. Muhammad IRFAN, Muhammad MUNSIF, Deepdive: a learning-based approach for virtual camera in immersive contents Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2022, 4(3): 247-262

28. Dangxiao WANG, Yuan GUO, Shiyi LIU, Yuru ZHANG, Weiliang XU, Jing XIAO, Haptic display for virtual reality: progress and challenges Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(2): 136-162

29. Aiguo SONG, Liyue FU, Multi-dimensional force sensor for haptic interaction: a review Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(2): 121-135

30. Wenmin ZHU, Xiumin FAN, Yanxin ZHANG, Applications and research trends of digital human models in the manufacturing industry Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(6): 558-579

31. Mohammad Mahmudul ALAM, S. M. Mahbubur RAHMAN, Affine transformation of virtual 3D object using 2D localization of fingertips Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2020, 2(6): 534-555

32. Yuan WEI, Dongdong GUAN, Qiuchen WANG, Xiangxian LI, Yulong BIAN, Pu QIN, Yanning XU, Chenglei YANG, Virtual fire drill system supporting co-located collaboration Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2019, 1(3): 290-302

33. Xiaoxiong FAN, Yun CAI, Yufei YANG, Tianxing XU, Yike Li, Songhai ZHANG, Fanglue ZHANG, Detection of scene-irrelevant head movements via eye-head coordination information Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2021, 3(6): 501-514

34. Haochen HU, Yue LIU, Kang YUE, Yongtian WANG, Navigation in virtual and real environment using brain computer interface:a progress report Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2022, 4(2): 89-114

35. Hayat ULLAH, Sitara AFZAL, Imran Ullah KHAN, Perceptual quality assessment of panoramic stitched contents for immersive applications: a prospective survey Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware 2022, 4(3): 223-246