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2020, 2(6): 569-584

Published Date:2020-12-20 DOI: 10.1016/j.vrih.2020.07.010

Effects of Virtual-real fusion on immersion, presence, and learning performance in laboratory education


Virtual-reality (VR) fusion techniques have become increasingly popular in recent years, and several previous studies have applied them to laboratory education. However, without a basis for evaluating the effects of virtual-real fusion on VR in education, many developers have chosen to abandon this expensive and complex set of techniques.
In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of virtual-real fusion on immersion, presence, and learning performance. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a PC environment (PCE) operated by mouse; a VR environment (VRE) operated by controllers; or a VR environment running virtual-real fusion (VR-VRFE), operated by real hands.
The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test results for presence and self-efficacy show significant differences between the PCE*VR-VRFE condition pair. Furthermore, the results show significant differences in the intrinsic value of learning performance for pairs PCE*VR-VRFE and VRE*VR-VRFE, and a marginally significant difference was found for the immersion group.
The results suggest that virtual-real fusion can offer improved immersion, presence, and self-efficacy compared to traditional PC environments, as well as a better intrinsic value of learning performance compared to both PC and VR environments. The results also suggest that virtual-real fusion offers a lower sense of presence compared to traditional VR environments.


Education ; Immersion ; Presence ; Virtual-Real Fusion ; Virtual Reality

Cite this article

Jingcheng QIAN, Yancong MA, Zhigeng PAN, Xubo YANG. Effects of Virtual-real fusion on immersion, presence, and learning performance in laboratory education. Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware, 2020, 2(6): 569-584 DOI:10.1016/j.vrih.2020.07.010


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